Standard Name 
Canonical Units 
AMIP 
GRIB 

aerosol_angstrom_exponent "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets).

1 


air_density
No help available.

kg m3 


air_potential_temperature Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure.

K 
theta 
13 
air_pressure
No help available.

Pa 
plev 
1 
air_pressure_anomaly "anomaly" means difference from climatology.

Pa 

26 
air_pressure_at_cloud_base cloud_base refers to the base of the lowest cloud.

Pa 


air_pressure_at_cloud_top cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud.

Pa 


air_pressure_at_convective_cloud_base cloud_base refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

Pa 


air_pressure_at_convective_cloud_top cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

Pa 


air_pressure_at_freezing_level
No help available.

Pa 


air_pressure_at_sea_level sea_level means mean sea level, which is close to the geoid in sea areas. Air pressure at sea level is the quantity often abbreviated as MSLP or PMSL.

Pa 
psl 
2 E151 
air_temperature Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K 
ta 
11 E130 
air_temperature_anomaly "anomaly" means difference from climatology. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K 

25 
air_temperature_at_cloud_top cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K 


air_temperature_lapse_rate Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. A lapse rate is the negative derivative of a quantity with respect to increasing height above the surface, or the (positive) derivative with respect to increasing depth.

K m1 

19 
air_temperature_threshold Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. Air temperature excess and deficit are calculated relative to the air temperature threshold.

K 


altitude Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 

8 
altitude_at_top_of_dry_convection Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 


area_fraction "Area fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area. To specify which area is quantified by a variable of area_fraction, provide a coordinate variable or scalar coordinate variable of land_cover or surface_cover. Alternatively, if one is defined, use a more specific standard name of "X_area_fraction" for the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X.

1 


area_fraction_below_surface The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The fraction of horizontal area where the surface specified by the axes other than horizontal axes, for instance an isobaric surface, is below the (ground or sea) surface.

1 
psbg 

atmosphere_absolute_vorticity Absolute vorticity is the sum of relative vorticity and the upward component of vorticity due to the Earth's rotation.

s1 

41 
atmosphere_boundary_layer_thickness The atmosphere boundary layer thickness is the "depth" or "height" of the (atmosphere) planetary boundary layer.

m 
zmla 

atmosphere_cloud_condensed_water_content "condensed_water" means liquid and ice. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.

kg m2 
clwvi 
76 
atmosphere_cloud_ice_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.

kg m2 
clivi 
58 
atmosphere_cloud_liquid_water_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.

kg m2 


atmosphere_content_of_sulfate_aerosol "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets).

kg m2 
trsult 

atmosphere_convective_mass_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The atmosphere convective mass flux is the vertical transport of mass for a field of cumulus clouds or thermals, given by the product of air density and vertical velocity. For an areaaverage, cell_methods should specify whether the average is over all the area or the area of updrafts only.

kg m2 s1 


atmosphere_dry_energy_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Dry energy is the sum of sum of dry static energy and kinetic energy. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

J m2 


atmosphere_dry_static_energy_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

J m2 


atmosphere_eastward_stress_due_to_gravity_wave_drag The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Atmosphere_Xward_stress is a stress which tends to accelerate the atmosphere in direction X.

Pa 
tauugwd 

atmosphere_energy_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. "Atmosphere energy content" has not yet been precisely defined! Please express your views on this quantity on the CF email list.

J m2 


atmosphere_enthalpy_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

J m2 


atmosphere_heat_diffusivity
No help available.

m2 s1 


atmosphere_horizontal_streamfunction "Horizontal" indicates that the streamfunction applies to a horizontal velocity field on a particular vertical level.

m2 s1 

35 
atmosphere_horizontal_velocity_potential A velocity is a vector quantity. "Horizontal" indicates that the velocity potential applies to a horizontal velocity field on a particular vertical level.

m2 s1 

36 
atmosphere_hybrid_height_coordinate See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

m 


atmosphere_hybrid_sigma_pressure_coordinate See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

1 


atmosphere_kinetic_energy_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.

J m2 


atmosphere_ln_pressure_coordinate "ln_X" means natural logarithm of X. X must be dimensionless. See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

1 


atmosphere_mass_per_unit_area
No help available.

kg m2 


atmosphere_momentum_diffusivity
No help available.

m2 s1 


atmosphere_northward_stress_due_to_gravity_wave_drag The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Atmosphere_Xward_stress is a stress which tends to accelerate the atmosphere in direction X.

Pa 
tauvgwd 

atmosphere_optical_thickness_due_to_aerosol The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. The optical thickness is the integral along the path of radiation of a volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient. The radiative flux is reduced by a factor exp(optical_thickness) on traversing the path. The atmosphere optical thickness applies to radiation passing through the entire atmosphere. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets).

1 


atmosphere_potential_energy_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)

J m2 


atmosphere_relative_vorticity Relative vorticity is the upward component of the vorticity vector i.e. the component which arises from horizontal velocity.

s1 

43 E138 
atmosphere_sigma_coordinate See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

1 


atmosphere_sleve_coordinate See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

1 


atmosphere_specific_convective_available_potential_energy
alias: specific_convective_available_potential_energy
"specific" means per unit mass. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.) Convective(ly) available potential energy is often abbreviated as "CAPE".

J kg1 


atmosphere_sulfate_content
alias: atmosphere_so4_content
"Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.

kg m2 


atmosphere_water_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. "Water" means water in all phases.

kg m2 


atmosphere_water_vapor_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as "precipitable water", although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated.

kg m2 
prw 
54 
baroclinic_eastward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward).

m s1 


baroclinic_northward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward).

m s1 


barotropic_eastward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward).

m s1 


barotropic_northward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward).

m s1 


bedrock_altitude Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level. "Bedrock" is the solid Earth surface beneath land ice or ocean water.

m 


bedrock_altitude_change_due_to_isostatic_adjustment The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level. "Bedrock" is the solid Earth surface beneath land ice or ocean water. The zero of bedrock altitude change is arbitrary. Isostatic adjustment is the vertical movement of the lithosphere due to changing surface ice and water loads.

m 


bioluminescent_photon_rate_in_sea_water
No help available.

s1 m3 


biomass_burning_carbon_flux "Biomass burning carbon" refers to the rate at which biomass is burned by forest fires etc., expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


brightness_temperature The brightness temperature of a body is the temperature of a black body which radiates the same power per unit solid angle per unit area.

K 

118 
brunt_vaisala_frequency_in_air
No help available.

s1 


canopy_and_surface_water_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Amount" means mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. "Canopy and surface water" means the sum of water on the ground and on the canopy.

kg m2 


canopy_height Height is the vertical distance above the surface. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy.

m 


canopy_water_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. The canopy water is the water on the canopy.

kg m2 


change_over_time_in_atmospheric_water_content_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "change_over_time_in_X" means change in a quantity X over a timeinterval, which should be defined by the bounds of the time coordinate. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases.

kg m2 


change_over_time_in_surface_snow_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "change_over_time_in_X" means change in a quantity X over a timeinterval, which should be defined by the bounds of the time coordinate. "Amount" means mass per unit area. Surface amount refers to the amount on the ground, excluding that on the plant or vegetation canopy.

kg m2 


cloud_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover". The cloud area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere. The cloud area fraction in a layer of the atmosphere has the standard name cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer.

1 
clt 
71 E164 
cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover".

1 
cl 

cloud_base_altitude cloud_base refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 


cloud_condensed_water_content_of_atmosphere_layer "condensed_water" means liquid and ice. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 


cloud_ice_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 


cloud_liquid_water_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 


cloud_top_altitude cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 


concentration_of_chlorophyll_in_sea_water
alias: chlorophyll_concentration_in_sea_water
No help available.

kg m3 


concentration_of_suspended_matter_in_sea_water
No help available.

kg m3 


convective_cloud_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover". The cloud area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere. The cloud area fraction in a layer of the atmosphere has the standard name cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

1 

72 E185 
convective_cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover". Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

1 


convective_cloud_base_altitude cloud_base refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

m 


convective_cloud_base_height cloud_base refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Height is the vertical distance above the surface. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

m 


convective_cloud_top_altitude cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

m 


convective_cloud_top_height cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Height is the vertical distance above the surface. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

m 


convective_precipitation_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 

63 
convective_precipitation_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
prc 

convective_rainfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 


convective_rainfall_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


convective_rainfall_rate
No help available.

m s1 


convective_snowfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 

78 
convective_snowfall_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


coriolis_parameter The Coriolis parameter is twice the component of the earth's angular velocity about the local vertical i.e. 2 W sin L, where L is latitude and W the angular speed of the earth.

s1 


depth Depth is the vertical distance below the surface.

m 


dew_point_depression Dew point depression is also called dew point deficit. It is the amount by which the air temperature exceeds its dew point temperature. Dew point temperature is the temperature at which a parcel of air reaches saturation upon being cooled at constant pressure and specific humidity.

K 

18 
dew_point_temperature Dew point temperature is the temperature at which a parcel of air reaches saturation upon being cooled at constant pressure and specific humidity.

K 

17 
difference_of_air_pressure_from_model_reference In some atmosphere models, the difference of air pressure from model reference is a prognostic variable, instead of the air pressure itself. The model reference air pressure is a modeldependent constant.

Pa 


dimensionless_exner_function The term "Exner function" is applied to various quantities in the literature. "Dimensionless Exner function" is the standard name of (p/p0)^(R/Cp), where p is pressure, p0 a reference pressure, R the gas constant and Cp the specific heat at constant pressure. This quantity is also the ratio of insitu to potential temperature. Standard names for other variants can be defined on request.

1 


direction_of_sea_ice_velocity "direction_of_X" means direction of a vector, a bearing. A velocity is a vector quantity. Sea ice velocity is defined as a twodimensional vector, with no vertical component.

degree 

93 
direction_of_sea_water_velocity "direction_of_X" means direction of a vector, a bearing. A velocity is a vector quantity.

degree 

47 
direction_of_swell_wave_velocity "direction_of_X" means direction of a vector, a bearing. A velocity is a vector quantity.

degree 

104 
direction_of_wind_wave_velocity "direction_of_X" means direction of a vector, a bearing. A velocity is a vector quantity. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

degree 

101 
dissipation_in_atmosphere_boundary_layer
No help available.

W m2 

E145 
divergence_of_sea_ice_velocity "[horizontal_]divergence_of_X" means [horizontal] divergence of a vector X; if X does not have a vertical component then "horizontal" should be omitted. A velocity is a vector quantity. Sea ice velocity is defined as a twodimensional vector, with no vertical component.

s1 

98 
divergence_of_wind "[horizontal_]divergence_of_X" means [horizontal] divergence of a vector X; if X does not have a vertical component then "horizontal" should be omitted. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

s1 

44 E155 
downward_dry_static_energy_flux_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downward_eastward_momentum_flux_in_air "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). "Downward eastward" indicates the ZX component of a tensor. Momentum flux is dimensionally equivalent to stress and pressure. It is a tensor quantity. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

Pa 

124 
downward_eastward_stress_at_sea_ice_base "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). "Downward eastward" indicates the ZX component of a tensor. A downward eastward stress is a downward flux of eastward momentum, which accelerates the lower medium eastward and the upper medium westward.

Pa 


downward_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_snow ground_level means the land surface (beneath the snow and surface water, if any). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downward_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_soil ground_level means the land surface (beneath the snow and surface water, if any). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downward_heat_flux_in_air "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). The vertical heat flux in air is the sum of all heat fluxes i.e. radiative, latent and sensible. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downward_heat_flux_in_sea_ice "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downward_heat_flux_in_soil "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downward_northward_momentum_flux_in_air "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). "Downward northward" indicates the ZY component of a tensor. Momentum flux is dimensionally equivalent to stress and pressure. It is a tensor quantity. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

Pa 

125 
downward_northward_stress_at_sea_ice_base "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). "Downward northward" indicates the ZY component of a tensor. A downward northward stress is a downward flux of northward momentum, which accelerates the lower medium northward and the upper medium southward.

Pa 


downward_sea_ice_basal_salt_flux "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


downward_water_vapor_flux_in_air_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


downward_x_stress_at_sea_ice_base "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward).

Pa 


downward_y_stress_at_sea_ice_base "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward).

Pa 


downwelling_longwave_flux_in_air "longwave" means longwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downwelling_longwave_radiance_in_air "longwave" means longwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


downwelling_photon_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 


downwelling_photon_radiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 sr1 


downwelling_photon_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon spherical irradiance is the photon flux incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 


downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 


downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_radiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 sr1 


downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. Photon spherical irradiance is the photon flux incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 


downwelling_photosynthetic_radiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength.

W m2 sr1 


downwelling_photosynthetic_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downwelling_photosynthetic_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4pi collector has standard names of "omnidirectional spherical irradiance".

W m2 


downwelling_radiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


downwelling_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


downwelling_shortwave_radiance_in_air "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


downwelling_spectral_photon_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 m1 


downwelling_spectral_photon_radiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 m1 sr1 


downwelling_spectral_photon_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Photon spherical irradiance is the photon flux incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 m1 


downwelling_spectral_radiance_in_air Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


downwelling_spectral_radiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


downwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_air Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


downwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


downwelling_spectral_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4pi collector has standard names of "omnidirectional spherical irradiance".

W m2 m1 


downwelling_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4pi collector has standard names of "omnidirectional spherical irradiance".

W m2 


dry_energy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Dry energy is the sum of sum of dry static energy and kinetic energy. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

J m2 


dry_static_energy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

J m2 


duration_of_sunshine The WMO definition of sunshine is that the surface incident radiative flux from the solar beam (i.e. excluding diffuse skylight) exceeds 120 W m2. "Duration" is the length of time for which a condition holds.

s 


eastward_atmosphere_dry_static_energy_transport_across_unit_distance "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

W m1 


eastward_atmosphere_water_transport_across_unit_distance "Water" means water in all phases. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport.

kg s1 m1 


eastward_atmosphere_water_vapor_transport_across_unit_distance "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport.

kg m1 s1 


eastward_mass_flux_of_air "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


eastward_momentum_flux_correction "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Momentum flux is dimensionally equivalent to stress and pressure. It is a tensor quantity. Flux correction is also called "flux adjustment". A positive flux correction is downward i.e. added to the ocean. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

Pa 
tauucorr 

eastward_sea_ice_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Sea ice velocity is defined as a twodimensional vector, with no vertical component.

m s1 

95 
eastward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward).

m s1 

49 
eastward_water_vapor_flux "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


eastward_water_vapor_transport_across_unit_distance_in_atmosphere_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport.

kg m1 s1 


eastward_wind "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 
ua 
33 E131 
eastward_wind_shear "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) Wind shear is the derivative of wind with respect to height.

s1 

45 
enthalpy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

J m2 


equilibrium_line_altitude Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level. The equilibrium line is the locus of points on a land ice surface at which ice accumulation balances ice ablation over the year.

m 


equivalent_potential_temperature Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure.

K 


equivalent_pressure_of_atmosphere_ozone_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The equivalent pressure of a particular constituent of the atmosphere is the surface pressure exerted by the weight of that constituent alone.

Pa 


equivalent_temperature
No help available.

K 


equivalent_thickness_at_stp_of_atmosphere_ozone_content
alias: equivalent_thickness_at_stp_of_atmosphere_o3_content
"stp" means standard temperature (0 degC) and pressure (101325 Pa). "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. The equivalent thickness at STP of a particular constituent of the atmosphere is the thickness of the layer that the gas would occupy if it was separated from the other constituents and gathered together at STP.

m 

10 
ertel_potential_vorticity
No help available.

K m2 kg1 s1 
vorpot 

forecast_period Forecast period is the time interval between the forecast reference time and the validity time. A period is an interval of time, or the timeperiod of an oscillation.

s 


forecast_reference_time The forecast reference time in NWP is the "data time", the time of the analysis from which the forecast was made. It is not the time for which the forecast is valid; the standard name of time should be used for that time.

s 


fractional_saturation_of_oxygen_in_sea_water Fractional saturation is the ratio of some measure of concentration to the saturated value of the same quantity.

1 


freezing_level_altitude Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 


freezing_temperature_of_sea_water
No help available.

K 


frozen_water_content_of_soil_layer "frozen_water" means ice. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s).

kg m2 


geopotential Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy.

m2 s2 

6 E129 
geopotential_height Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface.

m 
zg 
7 E156 
geopotential_height_anomaly "anomaly" means difference from climatology. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface.

m 

27 
geostrophic_eastward_wind "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 


geostrophic_northward_wind "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 


global_average_sea_level_change Global average sea level change is due to change in volume of the water in the ocean, caused by mass and/or density change, or to change in the volume of the ocean basins, caused by tectonics etc. It is sometimes called "eustatic", which is a term that also has other definitions. It differs from the change in the global average sea surface height relative to the centre of the Earth by the global average vertical movement of the ocean floor. Zero sea level change is an arbitrary level.

m 


global_average_thermosteric_sea_level_change Global average thermosteric sea level change is the part caused by change in density due to change in temperature i.e. thermal expansion. Zero sea level change is an arbitrary level.

m 


grid_latitude Latitude is positive northward; its units of degree_north (or equivalent) indicate this explicitly. In a latitudelongitude system defined with respect to a rotated North Pole, the standard name of grid_latitude should be used instead of latitude. Grid latitude is positive in the gridnorthward direction, but its units should be plain degree.

degree 


grid_longitude Longitude is positive eastward; its units of degree_east (or equivalent) indicate this explicitly. In a latitudelongitude system defined with respect to a rotated North Pole, the standard name of grid_longitude should be used instead of longitude. Grid longitude is positive in the grideastward direction, but its units should be plain degree.

degree 


gross_primary_productivity_of_carbon Gross primary productivity is the rate of synthesis of biomass per unit area from inorganic precursors by autotrophs, especially by photosynthesising plants using sunlight for energy. The producers also respire some of this biomass and the difference is net_primary_producivity. "Productivity of carbon" refers to the production of biomass expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains.

kg m2 s1 


heat_flux_correction Flux correction is also called "flux adjustment". A positive flux correction is downward i.e. added to the ocean. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
hfcorr 

height Height is the vertical distance above the surface.

m 
zh 

height_above_sea_floor
No help available.

m 


height_at_cloud_top cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Height is the vertical distance above the surface.

m 


heterotrophic_respiration_carbon_flux "Respiration carbon" refers to the rate at which biomass is respired expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains. Heterotrophic respiration is respiration by heterotrophs ("consumers"), which are organisms (including animals and decomposers) that consume other organisms or dead organic material, rather than synthesising organic material from inorganic precursors using energy from the environment (especially sunlight) as autotrophs ("producers") do. Heterotrophic respiration goes on both above and within the soil. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


humidity_mixing_ratio Humidity mixing ratio of a parcel of moist air is the ratio of the mass of water vapor to the mass of dry air.

1 

53 
integral_of_air_temperature_deficit_wrt_time "integral_of_Y_wrt_X" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. "wrt" means with respect to. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. The air temperature deficit is the air temperature threshold minus the air temperature. Its integral with respect to time is often called after its units of "degreedays".

K s 


integral_of_air_temperature_excess_wrt_time "integral_of_Y_wrt_X" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. "wrt" means with respect to. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. The air temperature excess is the air temperature minus the air temperature threshold. Its integral with respect to time is often called after its units of "degreedays".

K s 


integral_of_sea_water_temperature_wrt_depth_in_ocean_layer "integral_of_Y_wrt_X" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. "wrt" means with respect to. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Depth is the vertical distance below the surface.

K m 


isccp_cloud_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover". The cloud area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere. The cloud area fraction in a layer of the atmosphere has the standard name cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer. The ISCCP cloud area fraction is diagnosed from atmosphere model output by the ISCCP simulator software in such a way as to be comparable with the observational diagnostics of ISCCP (the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project).

1 
clisccp 

isotropic_longwave_radiance_in_air
alias: longwave_radiance
"longwave" means longwave radiation. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. If radiation is isotropic, the radiance is independent of direction, so the direction should not be specified. If the radiation is directionally dependent, a standard name of upwelling or downwelling radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


isotropic_shortwave_radiance_in_air
alias: shortwave_radiance
"shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. If radiation is isotropic, the radiance is independent of direction, so the direction should not be specified. If the radiation is directionally dependent, a standard name of upwelling or downwelling radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


isotropic_spectral_radiance_in_air
alias: spectral_radiance
"spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. If radiation is isotropic, the radiance is independent of direction, so the direction should not be specified. If the radiation is directionally dependent, a standard name of upwelling or downwelling radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


kinetic_energy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

J m2 


lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure
alias: omega
alias: vertical_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_pressure
"tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The Lagrangian tendency of a quantity is its rate of change following the motion of the fluid, also called the "material derivative" or "convective derivative". The Lagrangian tendency of air pressure, often called "omega", plays the role of the upward component of air velocity when air pressure is being used as the vertical coordinate. If the vertical air velocity is upwards, it is negative when expressed as a tendency of air pressure; downwards is positive.

Pa s1 
wap 
39 E135 
lagrangian_tendency_of_atmosphere_sigma_coordinate
alias: upward_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_sigma
alias: vertical_air_velocity_expressed_as_tendency_of_sigma
"tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The Lagrangian tendency of a quantity is its rate of change following the motion of the fluid, also called the "material derivative" or "convective derivative". The Lagrangian tendency of sigma plays the role of the upward component of air velocity when the atmosphere sigma coordinate (a dimensionless atmosphere vertical coordinate) is being used as the vertical coordinate. If the vertical air velocity is upwards, it is negative when expressed as a tendency of sigma; downwards is positive. See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

s1 

38 
land_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X.

1 
sftlf 
81 
land_binary_mask X_binary_mask has 1 where condition X is met, 0 elsewhere. 1 = land, 0 = sea.

1 

E172 
land_cover A variable with the standard name of land_cover contains strings which indicate the nature of the anthropogenic land use or vegetation e.g. urban, grass, needleleaf trees, ice. These strings have not yet been standardised. The alternative standard name of surface_cover is a generalisation of land_cover. Alternatively, the data variable may contain integers which can be translated to strings using flag_values and flag_meanings attributes.

1 


land_ice_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

1 
sftgif 

land_ice_basal_melt_rate "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. The land ice basal melt rate is the rate at which ice is lost per unit area at the base of the ice.

m s1 


land_ice_basal_x_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

m s1 


land_ice_basal_y_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

m s1 


land_ice_calving_rate "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. The land ice calving rate is the rate at which ice is lost per unit area through calving into the ocean.

m s1 


land_ice_lwe_basal_melt_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. The land ice basal melt rate is the rate at which ice is lost per unit area at the base of the ice.

m s1 


land_ice_lwe_calving_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. The land ice calving rate is the rate at which ice is lost per unit area through calving into the ocean.

m s1 


land_ice_lwe_surface_specific_mass_balance "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. Specific mass balance means the net rate at which ice is added per unit area at the land ice surface.

m s1 


land_ice_sigma_coordinate "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

1 


land_ice_surface_specific_mass_balance "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. Specific mass balance means the net rate at which ice is added per unit area at the land ice surface.

m s1 


land_ice_temperature "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

K 


land_ice_thickness "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

m 


land_ice_vertical_mean_x_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. The vertical mean land ice velocity is the average from the bedrock to the surface of the ice.

m s1 


land_ice_vertical_mean_y_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock. The vertical mean land ice velocity is the average from the bedrock to the surface of the ice.

m s1 


land_ice_x_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

m s1 


land_ice_y_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

m s1 


large_scale_cloud_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover". The cloud area fraction is for the whole atmosphere column, as seen from the surface or the top of the atmosphere. The cloud area fraction in a layer of the atmosphere has the standard name cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer.

1 


large_scale_precipitation_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 

62 
large_scale_precipitation_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


large_scale_rainfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 


large_scale_rainfall_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


large_scale_rainfall_rate
No help available.

m s1 


large_scale_snowfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 

79 
large_scale_snowfall_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


latitude Latitude is positive northward; its units of degree_north (or equivalent) indicate this explicitly. In a latitudelongitude system defined with respect to a rotated North Pole, the standard name of grid_latitude should be used instead of latitude. Grid latitude is positive in the gridnorthward direction, but its units should be plain degree.

degree_north 
latitude 

leaf_area_index
No help available.

1 


liquid_water_content_of_soil_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s).

kg m2 


litter_carbon_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Litter carbon" is dead inorganic material in or above the soil quantified as the mass of carbon which it contains.

kg m2 


litter_carbon_flux "Litter carbon" is dead inorganic material in or above the soil quantified as the mass of carbon which it contains. The litter carbon flux is the rate of production of litter. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


longitude Longitude is positive eastward; its units of degree_east (or equivalent) indicate this explicitly. In a latitudelongitude system defined with respect to a rotated North Pole, the standard name of grid_longitude should be used instead of longitude. Grid longitude is positive in the grideastward direction, but its units should be plain degree.

degree_east 
longitude 

lwe_convective_precipitation_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent.

m s1 


lwe_convective_snowfall_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent.

m s1 


lwe_large_scale_precipitation_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent.

m s1 


lwe_large_scale_snowfall_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent.

m s1 


lwe_precipitation_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent.

m s1 


lwe_snowfall_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent.

m s1 


lwe_thickness_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as "precipitable water", although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated.

m 

E137 
lwe_thickness_of_canopy_water_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. The canopy water is the water on the canopy.

m 


lwe_thickness_of_convective_precipitation_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area.

m 

E143 
lwe_thickness_of_convective_snowfall_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area.

m 


lwe_thickness_of_frozen_water_content_of_soil_layer "frozen_water" means ice. "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s).

m 


lwe_thickness_of_large_scale_precipitation_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area.

m 

E142 
lwe_thickness_of_large_scale_snowfall_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area.

m 


lwe_thickness_of_moisture_content_of_soil_layer "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s).

m 


lwe_thickness_of_precipitation_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area.

m 


lwe_thickness_of_snowfall_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area.

m 

E144 
lwe_thickness_of_soil_moisture_content "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "soil content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used.

m 

E140 
lwe_thickness_of_surface_snow_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. Surface amount refers to the amount on the ground, excluding that on the plant or vegetation canopy.

m 

E141 
lwe_thickness_of_water_evaporation_amount "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction lwe_thickness_of_X_amount or _content means the vertical extent of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".)

m 

E182 
lwe_water_evaporation_rate "lwe" means liquid water equivalent. "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".)

m s1 


magnitude_of_surface_downward_stress The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "magnitude_of_X" means magnitude of a vector X. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward).

Pa 


mass_concentration_of_sulfate_aerosol_in_air Mass concentration means mass per unit volume and is used in the construction mass_concentration_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets).

kg m3 
trsul 

mass_fraction_of_cloud_condensed_water_in_air "condensed_water" means liquid and ice. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_cloud_ice_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 
cli 

mass_fraction_of_cloud_liquid_water_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 
clw 

mass_fraction_of_convective_cloud_ice_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y). Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

1 


mass_fraction_of_convective_cloud_liquid_water_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y). Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

1 


mass_fraction_of_convective_condensed_water_in_air "condensed_water" means liquid and ice. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_dimethyl_sulfide_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_frozen_water_in_soil_moisture "frozen_water" means ice. "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_graupel_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_ozone_in_air
alias: mass_fraction_of_o3_in_air
Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_precipitation_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_rain_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_snow_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_ice_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y). In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by largescale convergence (not the convection schemes).

1 


mass_fraction_of_stratiform_cloud_liquid_water_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y). In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by largescale convergence (not the convection schemes).

1 


mass_fraction_of_sulfur_dioxide_in_air Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_unfrozen_water_in_soil_moisture "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. "unfrozen_water" means liquid and vapour. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


mass_fraction_of_water_in_air "Water" means water in all phases. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

1 


model_level_number Model level number should be understood as equivalent to layer number.

1 
lev 

model_level_number_at_convective_cloud_base cloud_base refers to the base of the lowest cloud. Model level number should be understood as equivalent to layer number. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

1 


model_level_number_at_convective_cloud_top cloud_top refers to the top of the highest cloud. Model level number should be understood as equivalent to layer number. Convective cloud is that produced by the convection schemes in an atmosphere model.

1 


model_level_number_at_top_of_atmosphere_boundary_layer Model level number should be understood as equivalent to layer number.

1 


moisture_content_of_soil_layer "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s).

kg m2 
mrsos 

moisture_content_of_soil_layer_at_field_capacity "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Quantities defined for a soil layer must have a vertical coordinate variable with boundaries indicating the extent of the layer(s). The field capacity of soil is the maximum content of water it can retain against gravitational drainage.

kg m2 
mrsofcs 

mole_fraction_of_ozone_in_air
alias: mole_fraction_of_o3_in_air
Mole fraction is used in the construction mole_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

1 
tro3 

moles_of_nitrate_and_nitrite_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called "molality" of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

mol kg1 


moles_of_nitrate_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called "molality" of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

mol kg1 


moles_of_nitrite_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called "molality" of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

mol kg1 


moles_of_oxygen_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called "molality" of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

mol kg1 


moles_of_phosphate_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called "molality" of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

mol kg1 


moles_of_silicate_per_unit_mass_in_sea_water moles_of_X_per_unit_mass_inY is also called "molality" of X in Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

mol kg1 


net_downward_longwave_flux_in_air "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


net_downward_longwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


net_downward_radiative_flux_at_top_of_atmosphere_model Fluxes at the top_of_atmosphere_model differ from TOA fluxes only if the model TOA fluxes make some allowance for the atmosphere above the top of the model; if not, it is usual to give standard names with toa to the fluxes at the top of the model atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rtmt 

net_downward_shortwave_flux_in_air "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


net_downward_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsntpcs 

net_primary_productivity_of_carbon Net primary productivity is the excess of gross_primary_producivity (rate of synthesis of biomass per unit area from inorganic precursors by autotrophs, or "producers", especially by photosynthesising plants using sunlight for energy) over the rate at which they themselves respire some of this biomass (plant_respiration, assuming all producers to be plants). "Productivity of carbon" refers to the production of biomass expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains.

kg m2 s1 


net_upward_longwave_flux_in_air "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

115 
net_upward_longwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rlntpcs 

net_upward_shortwave_flux_in_air "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

116 
net_upward_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


northward_atmosphere_dry_static_energy_transport_across_unit_distance "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

W m1 


northward_atmosphere_heat_transport "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). "Atmosphere heat transport" means total heat transport by the atmosphere by all processes.

W 


northward_atmosphere_water_transport_across_unit_distance "Water" means water in all phases. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport.

kg s1 m1 


northward_atmosphere_water_vapor_transport_across_unit_distance "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport.

kg m1 s1 


northward_mass_flux_of_air "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


northward_momentum_flux_correction "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Momentum flux is dimensionally equivalent to stress and pressure. It is a tensor quantity. Flux correction is also called "flux adjustment". A positive flux correction is downward i.e. added to the ocean. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

Pa 
tauvcorr 

northward_ocean_freshwater_transport "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Ocean transport means transport by all processes, both sea water and sea ice.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_freshwater_transport_due_to_bolus_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by bolus advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing eddyinduced effects not included in the velocity field.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_freshwater_transport_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by diffusion means the part due to horizontal or isopyncal diffusion schemes in an ocean model, but not including the "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_freshwater_transport_due_to_gyre The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by the ocean gyre is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of deviations of velocity and tracer from their zonal means. The velocity does not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_freshwater_transport_due_to_overturning The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by (meridional) overturning is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of zonal means of velocity and tracer. The velocity does not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_heat_transport "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Ocean transport means transport by all processes, both sea water and sea ice.

W 


northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_bolus_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by bolus advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing eddyinduced effects not included in the velocity field.

W 


northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by diffusion means the part due to horizontal or isopyncal diffusion schemes in an ocean model, but not including the "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

W 
htovdiff 

northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_gyre The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by the ocean gyre is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of deviations of velocity and tracer from their zonal means. The velocity does not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

W 
htovgyre 

northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_overturning The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by (meridional) overturning is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of zonal means of velocity and tracer. The velocity does not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

W 
htovovrt 

northward_ocean_salt_transport "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Ocean transport means transport by all processes, both sea water and sea ice.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_bolus_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by bolus advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing eddyinduced effects not included in the velocity field.

kg s1 


northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by diffusion means the part due to horizontal or isopyncal diffusion schemes in an ocean model, but not including the "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

kg s1 
sltovdiff 

northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_gyre The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by the ocean gyre is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of deviations of velocity and tracer from their zonal means. The velocity does not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

kg s1 
sltovgyre 

northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_overturning The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Northward transport by (meridional) overturning is geometrically defined as being the part due to the vertical integral of the product of zonal means of velocity and tracer. The velocity does not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

kg s1 
sltovovrt 

northward_sea_ice_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Sea ice velocity is defined as a twodimensional vector, with no vertical component.

m s1 

96 
northward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward).

m s1 

50 
northward_water_vapor_flux "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


northward_water_vapor_transport_across_unit_distance_in_atmosphere_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Transport across_unit_distance means expressed per unit distance normal to the direction of transport.

kg m1 s1 


northward_wind "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 
va 
34 E132 
northward_wind_shear "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) Wind shear is the derivative of wind with respect to height.

s1 

46 
ocean_barotropic_streamfunction
No help available.

m3 s1 
stfbaro 

ocean_integral_of_sea_water_temperature_wrt_depth "integral_of_Y_wrt_X" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. "wrt" means with respect to. Depth is the vertical distance below the surface.

K m 


ocean_isopycnal_layer_thickness_diffusivity
No help available.

m2 s1 


ocean_meridional_overturning_streamfunction The ocean meridional overturning streamfunction should not include not include "bolus" or GentMcWilliams velocity.

m3 s1 
stfmmcgo 

ocean_mixed_layer_thickness The ocean mixed layer is the upper part of the ocean, regarded as being wellmixed. Various criteria are used to define the mixed layer; this can be specified by using a standard name of ocean_mixed_layer_defined_byX.

m 

67 
ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_mixing_scheme The ocean mixed layer is the upper part of the ocean, regarded as being wellmixed. The base of the mixed layer defined by the mixing scheme is a diagnostic of ocean models.

m 


ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_sigma_t The ocean mixed layer is the upper part of the ocean, regarded as being wellmixed. The base of the mixed layer defined by temperature, sigma or sigma_theta is the level at which the quantity indicated differs from its surface value by a certain amount.

m 


ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_sigma_theta The ocean mixed layer is the upper part of the ocean, regarded as being wellmixed. The base of the mixed layer defined by temperature, sigma or sigma_theta is the level at which the quantity indicated differs from its surface value by a certain amount.

m 


ocean_mixed_layer_thickness_defined_by_temperature The ocean mixed layer is the upper part of the ocean, regarded as being wellmixed. The base of the mixed layer defined by temperature, sigma or sigma_theta is the level at which the quantity indicated differs from its surface value by a certain amount.

m 


ocean_s_coordinate See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates.

1 


ocean_sigma_coordinate See Appendix D of the CF convention for information about dimensionless vertical coordinates. Note that the ocean sigma coordinate is not the same quantity as sea water sigma (excess of density over 1000 kg m3), for which there are various other standard names.

1 


ocean_volume
No help available.

m3 


ocean_volume_fraction "X_volume_fraction" means the fraction of volume occupied by X.

1 


omnidirectional_photosynthetic_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. Omnidirectional spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a spherical (or "4pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". Radiation incident on a 2pi collector has standard names of "spherical irradiance" which specify up/downwelling.

W m2 


omnidirectional_spectral_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Omnidirectional spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a spherical (or "4pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". Radiation incident on a 2pi collector has standard names of "spherical irradiance" which specify up/downwelling.

W m3 


optical_thickness_of_atmosphere_layer_due_to_aerosol The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. The optical thickness is the integral along the path of radiation of a volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient. The radiative flux is reduced by a factor exp(optical_thickness) on traversing the path. "Aerosol" means the suspended liquid or solid particles in air (except cloud droplets).

1 


planetary_albedo
No help available.

1 


plant_respiration_carbon_flux "Respiration carbon" refers to the rate at which biomass is respired expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains. Plant respiration is the sum of respiration by parts of plants both above and below the soil. Plants which photosynthesise are autotrophs i.e. "producers" of the biomass which they respire from inorganic precursors using sunlight for energy. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


platform_course Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship. The platform course is the direction in which the platform is travelling (not necessarily the same as the direction in which it is pointing, called platform_orientation).

degree 


platform_orientation Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship. The platform orientation is the direction in which the "front" or longitudinal axis of the platform is pointing (not necessarily the same as the direction in which it is travelling, called platform_course).

degree 


platform_pitch_angle Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

degree 


platform_pitch_rate Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

degree s1 


platform_roll_angle Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

degree 


platform_roll_rate Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

degree s1 


platform_speed_wrt_air "wrt" means with respect to. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship. The platform speed with respect to air is often called the "air speed" of the platform.

m s1 


platform_speed_wrt_ground "wrt" means with respect to. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship. The platform speed with respect to ground is relative to the solid Earth beneath it i.e. the sea floor for a ship. It is often called the "ground speed" of the platform.

m s1 


platform_speed_wrt_sea_water "wrt" means with respect to. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

m s1 


platform_yaw_angle Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

degree 


platform_yaw_rate Standard names for platform describe the motion and orientation of the vehicle from which observations are made e.g. aeroplane or ship.

degree s1 


potential_energy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)

J m2 


potential_vorticity_of_atmosphere_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Atmosphere potential vorticity is the vertically averaged absolute vorticity of a layer of the atmosphere divided by the pressure difference from the bottom to the top of the layer.

Pa1 s1 


potential_vorticity_of_ocean_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Ocean potential vorticity is the vertically averaged absolute vorticity of a layer of the ocean divided by the thickness of the layer.

m1 s1 


precipitation_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 

61 
precipitation_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
pr 
59 
precipitation_flux_onto_canopy_where_land Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
prveg 

product_of_air_temperature_and_omega "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

K Pa s1 


product_of_air_temperature_and_specific_humidity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

K 


product_of_eastward_sea_water_velocity_and_salinity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). The unit of salinity is PSU, which is dimensionless. The units attribute should be given as 1e3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand if salinity is in PSU.

m s1 


product_of_eastward_sea_water_velocity_and_temperature "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward).

K m s1 


product_of_eastward_wind_and_air_temperature "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

K m s1 


product_of_eastward_wind_and_geopotential_height "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m2 s1 
mpuzga 

product_of_eastward_wind_and_northward_wind "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m2 s2 
mpuva 

product_of_eastward_wind_and_omega "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

Pa m s2 


product_of_eastward_wind_and_specific_humidity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 


product_of_eastward_wind_and_upward_air_velocity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m2 s2 


product_of_geopotential_height_and_omega "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface. "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

Pa m s1 


product_of_northward_sea_water_velocity_and_salinity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). The unit of salinity is PSU, which is dimensionless. The units attribute should be given as 1e3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand if salinity is in PSU.

m s1 


product_of_northward_sea_water_velocity_and_temperature "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward).

K m s1 


product_of_northward_wind_and_air_temperature "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

K m s1 
mpvta 

product_of_northward_wind_and_geopotential_height "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m2 s1 
mpvzga 

product_of_northward_wind_and_omega "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

Pa m s2 


product_of_northward_wind_and_specific_humdity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 


product_of_northward_wind_and_specific_humidity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 
mpvhusa 

product_of_northward_wind_and_upward_air_velocity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m2 s2 


product_of_omega_and_air_temperature "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

K Pa s1 
mpwapta 

product_of_omega_and_specific_humidity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air. "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

Pa s1 
mpwhusa 

product_of_specific_humidity_and_omega "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air. "omegaX" is used for brevity to mean "lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure in standard names constructed as a combination of omega with some other quantity.

Pa s1 


product_of_upward_air_velocity_and_air_temperature "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

K m s1 


product_of_upward_air_velocity_and_specific_humidity "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. "specific" means per unit mass. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air. Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m s1 


projection_x_coordinate "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. Projection coordinates are distances in the x and ydirections on a plane onto which the surface of the Earth has been projected according to a map projection. The relationship between the projection coordinates and latitude and longitude is described by the grid_mapping.

m 


projection_y_coordinate "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. Projection coordinates are distances in the x and ydirections on a plane onto which the surface of the Earth has been projected according to a map projection. The relationship between the projection coordinates and latitude and longitude is described by the grid_mapping.

m 


pseudo_equivalent_potential_temperature Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure.

K 

14 
pseudo_equivalent_temperature
No help available.

K 


radial_velocity_of_scatterers_away_from_instrument A velocity is a vector quantity. "Radial velocity away from instrument" means the component of the velocity of the scatterers along the line of sight of the instrument where positive implies movement away from the instrument (i.e. outward). The "instrument" (examples are radar and lidar) is the device used to make the observation, and the "scatterers" are what causes the transmitted signal to be returned to the instrument (examples are aerosols, hydrometeors and refractive index irregularities), of whatever kind the instrument detects.

m s1 


radiation_wavelength
alias: electromagnetic_wavelength
The radiation wavelength can refer to any electromagnetic wave, such as light, heat radiation and radio waves.

m 


rainfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 


rainfall_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


rainfall_rate
No help available.

m s1 


region A variable with the standard name of region contains strings which indicate geographical regions. These strings must be chosen from the standard region list.

string 


relative_humidity
No help available.

1 
hur 
52 E157 
root_depth Depth is the vertical distance below the surface. The root depth is maximum depth of soil reached by plant roots, from which they can extract moisture.

m 


runoff_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, "runoff" refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage.

kg m2 


runoff_flux Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, "runoff" refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
mrro 

scattering_angle The scattering angle is that between the direction of the beam of incident radiation and the direction into which it is scattered.

rad 


sea_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X.

1 


sea_floor_depth_below_geoid
alias: sea_floor_depth
The geoid is a surface of constant geopotential with which mean sea level would coincide if the ocean were at rest. (The volume enclosed between the geoid and the sea floor equals the mean volume of water in the ocean.) In an ocean GCM the geoid is the surface of zero depth, or the rigid lid if the model uses that approximation.

m 
zobt 

sea_floor_depth_below_sea_level sea_level means mean sea level, which is close to the geoid in sea areas.

m 


sea_ice_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 


sea_ice_area
No help available.

m2 


sea_ice_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Sea ice area fraction is area of the sea surface occupied by sea ice. It is also called "sea ice concentration".

1 
sic 
91 
sea_ice_draft Sea ice draft is the depth of the seaice lower surface below the water surface.

m 


sea_ice_extent
No help available.

m2 


sea_ice_freeboard Sea ice freeboard is the height of the seaice upper surface above the water surface.

m 


sea_ice_mass
No help available.

kg 


sea_ice_speed Speed is the magnitude of velocity.

m s1 

94 
sea_ice_temperature
No help available.

K 


sea_ice_thickness
No help available.

m 
sit 
92 
sea_ice_transport_across_line Transport across_line means that which crosses a particular line on the Earth's surface; formally this means the integral along the line of the normal component of the transport.

kg s1 


sea_ice_volume
No help available.

m3 


sea_ice_x_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x.

m s1 


sea_ice_y_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y.

m s1 


sea_surface_height_above_geoid
alias: sea_surface_elevation
alias: sea_surface_elevation_anomaly
The geoid is a surface of constant geopotential with which mean sea level would coincide if the ocean were at rest. (The volume enclosed between the geoid and the sea floor equals the mean volume of water in the ocean.) In an ocean GCM the geoid is the surface of zero depth, or the rigid lid if the model uses that approximation. "Sea surface height" is a timevarying quantity. By definition of the geoid, the global average of the timemean sea surface height (i.e. mean sea level) above the geoid must be zero. The standard name for the height of the sea surface above mean sea level is sea_surface_height_above_sea_level.

m 


sea_surface_height_above_sea_level
alias: sea_surface_height
sea_level means mean sea level, which is close to the geoid in sea areas. "Sea surface height" is a timevarying quantity. The standard name for the height of the sea surface above the geoid is sea_surface_height_above_geoid.

m 

82 
sea_surface_salinity The unit of salinity is PSU, which is dimensionless. The units attribute should be given as 1e3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand if salinity is in PSU. Sea surface salinity is often abbreviated as "SSS". For the salinity of sea water at a particular depth or layer, a data variable of sea_water_salinity with a vertical coordinate axis should be used.

1e3 


sea_surface_temperature Sea surface temperature is usually abbreviated as "SST". It is the temperature of sea water near the surface (including the part under seaice, if any), and not the skin temperature, whose standard name is surface_temperature. For the temperature of sea water at a particular depth or layer, a data variable of sea_water_temperature with a vertical coordinate axis should be used.

K 


sea_water_density Sea water density is the insitu density (not the potential density). If 1000 kg m3 is subtracted, the standard name sea_water_sigma_t should be chosen instead.

kg m3 


sea_water_electrical_conductivity
No help available.

S m1 


sea_water_potential_density Potential density is the density a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to a reference pressure, by default assumed to be sea level pressure. For sea water potential density, if 1000 kg m3 is subtracted, the standard name sea_water_sigma_theta should be chosen instead.

kg m3 


sea_water_potential_temperature Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure.

K 


sea_water_pressure
No help available.

dbar 


sea_water_salinity The unit of salinity is PSU, which is dimensionless. The units attribute should be given as 1e3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand if salinity is in PSU.

1e3 
so 
88 
sea_water_sigma_t Sigmat of sea water is the density of water at atmospheric pressure (i.e. the surface) having the same temperature and salinity, minus 1000 kg m3. Note that sea water sigma is not the same quantity as the dimensionless ocean sigma coordinate (see Appendix D of the CF convention), for which there is another standard name.

kg m3 


sea_water_sigma_theta Sigmatheta of sea water is the potential density (i.e. the density when moved adiabatically to a reference pressure) of water having the same temperature and salinity, minus 1000 kg m3. Note that sea water sigma is not the same quantity as the dimensionless ocean sigma coordinate (see Appendix D of the CF convention), for which there is another standard name.

kg m3 


sea_water_speed Speed is the magnitude of velocity.

m s1 

48 
sea_water_temperature
No help available.

K 
to 
80 
sea_water_x_velocity
alias: x_sea_water_velocity
A velocity is a vector quantity. "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x.

m s1 


sea_water_y_velocity
alias: y_sea_water_velocity
A velocity is a vector quantity. "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y.

m s1 


significant_height_of_swell_waves Height is the vertical distance above the surface. Wind waves are waves on the ocean surface.

m 

105 
significant_height_of_wind_and_swell_waves Height is the vertical distance above the surface. Wind waves are waves on the ocean surface. Wind waves and swell waves are waves on the ocean surface. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m 

100 
significant_height_of_wind_waves Height is the vertical distance above the surface. Wind waves are waves on the ocean surface. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m 

102 
snow_grain_size
No help available.

m 


snow_soot_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area.

kg m2 


snow_temperature Snow temperature is the bulk temperature of the snow, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K 

E238 
snowfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 


snowfall_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
prsn 
64 
soil_albedo Soil albedo is the albedo of the soil surface assuming no snow.

1 


soil_carbon_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "soil content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used.

kg m2 


soil_frozen_water_content "frozen_water" means ice. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "soil content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used.

kg m2 
mrfso 

soil_hydraulic_conductivity_at_saturation Hydraulic conductivity is the constant k in Darcy's Law q=k grad h for fluid flow q (volume transport per unit area i.e. velocity) through a porous medium, where h is the hydraulic head (pressure expressed as an equivalent depth of water).

m s1 


soil_moisture_content "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "soil content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used.

kg m2 
mrso 
86 
soil_moisture_content_at_field_capacity "moisture" means water in all phases contained in soil. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "soil content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface down to the bottom of the soil model. For the content between specified levels in the soil, standard names including content_of_soil_layer are used. The field capacity of soil is the maximum content of water it can retain against gravitational drainage.

kg m2 
mrsofc 

soil_porosity The soil porosity is the proportion of its total volume not occupied by soil solids.

1 


soil_respiration_carbon_flux "Respiration carbon" refers to the rate at which biomass is respired expressed as the mass of carbon which it contains. Soil respiration is the sum of respiration in the soil by animals and decomposers of litter (heterotrophs or "consumers"), which have not produced the biomass they respire, and respiration by the roots of plants (autotrophs or "producers"), which have themselves produced the biomass they respire. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


soil_temperature Soil temperature is the bulk temperature of the soil, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K 

85 
soil_type A variable with the standard name of soil_type contains strings which indicate the character of the soil e.g. clay. These strings have not yet been standardised. Alternatively, the data variable may contain integers which can be translated to strings using flag_values and flag_meanings attributes.

1 


specific_dry_energy_of_air "specific" means per unit mass. Dry energy is the sum of sum of dry static energy and kinetic energy. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

m2 s2 


specific_gravitational_potential_energy
alias: specific_potential_energy
"specific" means per unit mass. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)

J kg1 


specific_humidity "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

1 
hus 
51 E133 
specific_kinetic_energy_of_air "specific" means per unit mass.

m2 s2 


speed_of_sound_in_sea_water Speed is the magnitude of velocity.

m s1 


square_of_air_temperature "square_of_X" means X*X. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K2 
mptta 

square_of_brunt_vaisala_frequency_in_air "square_of_X" means X*X.

s2 

N138 
square_of_eastward_wind "square_of_X" means X*X. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m2 s2 
mpuua 

square_of_geopotential_height "square_of_X" means X*X. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy. Geopotential height is the geopotential divided by the standard acceleration due to gravity. It is numerically similar to the altitude (or geometric height) and not to the quantity with standard name height, which is relative to the surface.

m2 


square_of_lagrangian_tendency_of_air_pressure "square_of_X" means X*X. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The Lagrangian tendency of a quantity is its rate of change following the motion of the fluid, also called the "material derivative" or "convective derivative". The Lagrangian tendency of air pressure, often called "omega", plays the role of the upward component of air velocity when air pressure is being used as the vertical coordinate. If the vertical air velocity is upwards, it is negative when expressed as a tendency of air pressure; downwards is positive.

Pa2 s2 


square_of_northward_wind "square_of_X" means X*X. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m2 s2 
mpvva 

square_of_upward_air_velocity "square_of_X" means X*X. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m2 s2 


stratiform_cloud_area_fraction_in_atmosphere_layer "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. Cloud area fraction is also called "cloud amount" and "cloud cover". In an atmosphere model, stratiform cloud is that produced by largescale convergence (not the convection schemes).

1 


subsurface_runoff_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, "runoff" refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage.

kg m2 


subsurface_runoff_flux Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, "runoff" refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


surface_air_pressure The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

Pa 
ps 
E134 
surface_albedo The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

1 

84 E174 
surface_albedo_assuming_deep_snow The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition.

1 


surface_albedo_assuming_no_snow The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition.

1 


surface_altitude The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 
orog 

surface_carbon_dioxide_mole_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol s2 s1 


surface_carbon_dioxide_partial_pressure_difference_between_air_and_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. The partial pressure of a gaseous constituent of air is the pressure which it alone would exert with unchanged temperature and number of moles per unit volume.

Pa 


surface_cover The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A variable with the standard name of surface_cover contains strings which indicate the nature of the surface e.g. urban, forest, vegetation, land, sea_ice, open_sea. These strings have not yet been standardised. This standard name is a generalisation of land_cover.

string 


surface_downward_eastward_stress The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). "Downward eastward" indicates the ZX component of a tensor. A downward eastward stress is a downward flux of eastward momentum, which accelerates the lower medium eastward and the upper medium westward. The surface downward stress is the windstress on the surface.

Pa 
tauu 
E180 
surface_downward_heat_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). The vertical heat flux in air is the sum of all heat fluxes i.e. radiative, latent and sensible. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
hfns 

surface_downward_heat_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_downward_latent_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). The surface latent heat flux is the exchange of heat between the surface and the air on account of evaporation (including sublimation). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_downward_northward_stress The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). "Downward northward" indicates the ZY component of a tensor. A downward northward stress is a downward flux of northward momentum, which accelerates the lower medium northward and the upper medium southward. The surface downward stress is the windstress on the surface.

Pa 
tauv 
E181 
surface_downward_sensible_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). The surface sensible heat flux, also called "turbulent" heat flux, is the exchange of heat between the surface and the air by motion of air. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_downward_water_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). The surface water flux is the result of precipitation and evaporation. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


surface_downward_x_stress The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward).

Pa 


surface_downward_y_stress The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward).

Pa 


surface_downwelling_longwave_flux_in_air
alias: surface_downwelling_longwave_flux
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "longwave" means longwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rlds 

surface_downwelling_longwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky
alias: surface_downwelling_longwave_flux
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rldscs 

surface_downwelling_photon_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 


surface_downwelling_photon_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 sr1 


surface_downwelling_photon_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon spherical irradiance is the photon flux incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 sr1 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_photon_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. Photon spherical irradiance is the photon flux incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength.

W m2 sr1 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_radiative_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_radiative_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_downwelling_photosynthetic_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4pi collector has standard names of "omnidirectional spherical irradiance".

W m2 


surface_downwelling_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


surface_downwelling_radiative_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air
alias: surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Surface downwelling shortwave is the sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation incident on the surface, and is sometimes called "global radiation". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsds 
117 E169 
surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky
alias: surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Surface downwelling shortwave is the sum of direct and diffuse solar radiation incident on the surface, and is sometimes called "global radiation". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsdscs 

surface_downwelling_spectral_photon_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 m1 


surface_downwelling_spectral_photon_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Photon radiance is the photon flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 m1 sr1 


surface_downwelling_spectral_photon_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Photon spherical irradiance is the photon flux incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles.

mol m2 s1 m1 


surface_downwelling_spectral_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction from which it is coming must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


surface_downwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


surface_downwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


surface_downwelling_spectral_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4pi collector has standard names of "omnidirectional spherical irradiance".

W m2 m1 


surface_downwelling_spherical_irradiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Spherical irradiance is the radiation incident on unit area of a hemispherical (or "2pi") collector. It is sometimes called "scalar irradiance". The direction (up/downwelling) is specified. Radiation incident on a 4pi collector has standard names of "omnidirectional spherical irradiance".

W m2 


surface_drag_coefficient_for_heat_in_air
alias: atmosphere_surface_drag_coefficient_of_heat
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

1 


surface_drag_coefficient_for_momentum_in_air
alias: atmosphere_surface_drag_coefficient_of_momentum
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

1 


surface_drag_coefficient_in_air
alias: atmosphere_surface_drag_coefficient
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

1 


surface_eastward_sea_water_velocity The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward).

m s1 


surface_geopotential The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Geopotential is the sum of the specific gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the specific centripetal potential energy.

m2 s2 


surface_net_downward_longwave_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rls 

surface_net_downward_longwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

E211 
surface_net_downward_shortwave_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rss 

surface_net_downward_shortwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

E210 
surface_net_upward_longwave_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

112 E176 
surface_net_upward_radiative_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_net_upward_shortwave_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

111 E177 
surface_northward_sea_water_velocity The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward).

m s1 


surface_partial_pressure_of_carbon_dioxide_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The partial pressure of a gaseous constituent of air is the pressure which it alone would exert with unchanged temperature and number of moles per unit volume.

Pa 


surface_partial_pressure_of_carbon_dioxide_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. The partial pressure of a dissolved gas in sea water is the partial pressure in air with which it would be in equilibrium. The partial pressure of a gaseous constituent of air is the pressure which it alone would exert with unchanged temperature and number of moles per unit volume.

Pa 


surface_roughness_length The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

m 

83 E173 
surface_roughness_length_for_heat_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

m 


surface_roughness_length_for_momentum_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

m 


surface_runoff_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Amount" means mass per unit area. Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, "runoff" refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage.

kg m2 

90 
surface_runoff_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Runoff is the liquid water which drains from land. If not specified, "runoff" refers to the sum of surface runoff and subsurface drainage. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
mrros 

surface_snow_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Amount" means mass per unit area. Surface amount refers to the amount on the ground, excluding that on the plant or vegetation canopy.

kg m2 
snw 
65 
surface_snow_area_fraction The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X.

1 
snc 

surface_snow_melt_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 

99 
surface_snow_melt_and_sublimation_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Sublimation is the conversion of solid into vapor. The snow melt and sublimation heat flux is the supply of latent heat which converting snow to liquid water (melting) and water vapor (sublimation). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_snow_melt_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
snm 

surface_snow_melt_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The snow melt heat flux is the supply of latent heat which is melting snow at freezing point. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_snow_sublimation_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Amount" means mass per unit area. Sublimation is the conversion of solid into vapor.

kg m2 


surface_snow_sublimation_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Sublimation is the conversion of solid into vapor. The snow sublimation heat flux is the supply of latent heat which is causing evaporation of snow to water vapor. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_snow_thickness The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere.

m 
snd 
66 
surface_snow_thickness_where_sea_ice The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type.

m 


surface_specific_humidity The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

1 


surface_temperature The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. The surface temperature is the (skin) temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below.

K 
ts 
E139 
surface_temperature_anomaly The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "anomaly" means difference from climatology. The surface temperature is the (skin) temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below.

K 


surface_temperature_where_land Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. The surface temperature is the (skin) temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below.

K 


surface_temperature_where_open_sea The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. The surface temperature is the (skin) temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below.

K 


surface_temperature_where_snow The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. The surface temperature is the (skin) temperature at the interface, not the bulk temperature of the medium above or below.

K 


surface_upward_heat_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The vertical heat flux in air is the sum of all heat fluxes i.e. radiative, latent and sensible. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_upward_latent_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The surface latent heat flux is the exchange of heat between the surface and the air on account of evaporation (including sublimation). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
hfls 
121 E147 
surface_upward_sensible_heat_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The surface sensible heat flux, also called "turbulent" heat flux, is the exchange of heat between the surface and the air by motion of air. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
hfss 
122 E146 
surface_upward_sensible_heat_flux_where_sea The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The surface sensible heat flux, also called "turbulent" heat flux, is the exchange of heat between the surface and the air by motion of air. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_upward_water_flux The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The surface water flux is the result of precipitation and evaporation. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


surface_upwelling_longwave_flux_in_air
alias: surface_upwelling_longwave_flux
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "longwave" means longwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rlus 

surface_upwelling_longwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky
alias: surface_upwelling_longwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


surface_upwelling_photosynthetic_photon_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "Photosynthetic" radiation is the part of the spectrum which is used in photosynthesis e.g. 300700 nm. The range of wavelengths could be specified precisely by the bounds of a coordinate of radiation_wavelength. A photon flux is specified in terms of numbers of photons expressed in moles. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

mol m2 s1 


surface_upwelling_radiance_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


surface_upwelling_radiance_in_air_emerging_from_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


surface_upwelling_radiance_in_air_reflected_by_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


surface_upwelling_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


surface_upwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air
alias: surface_upwelling_shortwave_flux
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsus 

surface_upwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_assuming_clear_sky
alias: surface_upwelling_shortwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky
The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsuscs 

surface_upwelling_spectral_radiance_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


surface_upwelling_spectral_radiance_in_air_emerging_from_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


surface_upwelling_spectral_radiance_in_air_reflected_by_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


surface_upwelling_spectral_radiance_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


surface_upwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_air The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


surface_upwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_sea_water The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


surface_water_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "Amount" means mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases, including frozen i.e. ice and snow. Surface amount refers to the amount on the ground, excluding that on the plant or vegetation canopy.

kg m2 


swell_wave_period A period is an interval of time, or the timeperiod of an oscillation.

s 

106 
tendency_of_air_density "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

kg m3 s1 


tendency_of_air_pressure "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

Pa s1 

3 
tendency_of_air_temperature "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_diabatic_processes The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 
tnt 

tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_dry_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 
tntdc 

tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_large_scale_precipitation The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 
tntlsp 

tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_longwave_heating The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "longwave" means longwave radiation. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 
tntlw 

tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_longwave_heating_assuming_clear_sky The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "longwave" means longwave radiation. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_moist_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 
tntmc 

tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_radiative_heating The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_shortwave_heating The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 
tntsw 

tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_shortwave_heating_assuming_clear_sky The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_air_temperature_due_to_turbulence The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K s1 


tendency_of_atmosphere_enthalpy_content_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

W m2 


tendency_of_atmosphere_kinetic_energy_content_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used.

W m2 


tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_per_unit_area "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_atmosphere_mass_per_unit_area_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_atmosphere_potential_energy_content_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Potential energy is the sum of the gravitational potential energy relative to the geoid and the centripetal potential energy. (The geopotential is the specific potential energy.)

W m2 


tendency_of_atmosphere_water_content_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. "Water" means water in all phases.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as "precipitable water", although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content_due_to_deep_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as "precipitable water", although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_atmosphere_water_vapor_content_due_to_shallow_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "atmosphere content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. For the content between specified levels in the atmosphere, standard names including content_of_atmosphere_layer are used. Atmosphere water vapor content is sometimes referred to as "precipitable water", although this term does not imply the water could all be precipitated.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_bedrock_altitude "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level. "Bedrock" is the solid Earth surface beneath land ice or ocean water.

m s1 


tendency_of_dry_energy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Dry energy is the sum of sum of dry static energy and kinetic energy. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

W m2 


tendency_of_dry_static_energy_content_of_atmosphere_layer "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume.

W m2 


tendency_of_eastward_wind "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 
tnmmutot 

tendency_of_eastward_wind_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 


tendency_of_eastward_wind_due_to_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 
tnmmuc 

tendency_of_eastward_wind_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 


tendency_of_eastward_wind_due_to_gravity_wave_drag The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 
tnmmugwd 

tendency_of_land_ice_thickness "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Land ice" means glaciers, icecaps and icesheets resting on bedrock.

m s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_condensed_water_in_air_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "condensed_water" means liquid and ice. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_ice_in_air "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_ice_in_air_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_ice_in_air_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_liquid_water_in_air "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_liquid_water_in_air_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_mass_fraction_of_cloud_liquid_water_in_air_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Mass fraction is used in the construction mass_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. It means the ratio of the mass of Y to the mass of X (including Y).

s1 


tendency_of_northward_wind "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 
tnmmvtot 

tendency_of_northward_wind_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 


tendency_of_northward_wind_due_to_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 
tnmmvc 

tendency_of_northward_wind_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 


tendency_of_northward_wind_due_to_gravity_wave_drag The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s2 
tnmmvgwd 

tendency_of_ocean_barotropic_streamfunction "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

m3 s2 


tendency_of_sea_ice_thickness_due_to_thermodynamics The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

m s1 

97 
tendency_of_specific_humidity "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

s1 


tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

s1 


tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

s1 
tnmrc 

tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

s1 


tendency_of_specific_humidity_due_to_model_physics The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "specific" means per unit mass. Specific humidity is the mass fraction of water vapor in (moist) air.

s1 
tnmrd 

tendency_of_surface_air_pressure The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.

Pa s1 

E158 
tendency_of_surface_snow_amount The surface called "surface" means the lower boundary of the atmosphere. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Amount" means mass per unit area. Surface amount refers to the amount on the ground, excluding that on the plant or vegetation canopy.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_upward_air_velocity "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m s2 


tendency_of_upward_air_velocity_due_to_advection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m s2 


tendency_of_water_vapor_content_of_atmosphere_layer "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_water_vapor_content_of_atmosphere_layer_due_to_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_water_vapor_content_of_atmosphere_layer_due_to_deep_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_water_vapor_content_of_atmosphere_layer_due_to_shallow_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 s1 


tendency_of_wind_speed_due_to_convection The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity.

m s2 


tendency_of_wind_speed_due_to_gravity_wave_drag The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity.

m s2 


thickness_of_convective_rainfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]rainfall_amount means the accumulated "depth" of rainfall i.e. the thickness of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area as the rainfall amount.

m 


thickness_of_convective_snowfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]snowfall_amount means the accumulated "depth" of snow which fell i.e. the thickness of the layer of snow at its own density. There are corresponding standard names for liquid water equivalent (lwe) thickness.

m 


thickness_of_large_scale_rainfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]rainfall_amount means the accumulated "depth" of rainfall i.e. the thickness of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area as the rainfall amount.

m 


thickness_of_large_scale_snowfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]snowfall_amount means the accumulated "depth" of snow which fell i.e. the thickness of the layer of snow at its own density. There are corresponding standard names for liquid water equivalent (lwe) thickness.

m 


thickness_of_rainfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]rainfall_amount means the accumulated "depth" of rainfall i.e. the thickness of a layer of liquid water having the same mass per unit area as the rainfall amount.

m 


thickness_of_snowfall_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. The construction thickness_of_[X_]snowfall_amount means the accumulated "depth" of snow which fell i.e. the thickness of the layer of snow at its own density. There are corresponding standard names for liquid water equivalent (lwe) thickness.

m 


thunderstorm_probability "probability_of_X" means the chance that X is true or of at least one occurrence of X. Space and time coordinates must be used to indicate the area and timeinterval to which a probability applies.

1 

60 
time
No help available.

s 
time 

toa_adjusted_longwave_forcing "longwave" means longwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment.

W m2 


toa_adjusted_radiative_forcing "toa" means top of atmosphere. Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment.

W m2 


toa_adjusted_shortwave_forcing "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment.

W m2 


toa_incoming_shortwave_flux "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. The TOA incoming shortwave flux is the radiative flux from the sun i.e. the "downwelling" TOA shortwave flux. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsdt 

toa_instantaneous_longwave_forcing "longwave" means longwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.).

W m2 


toa_instantaneous_radiative_forcing "toa" means top of atmosphere. Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.).

W m2 


toa_instantaneous_shortwave_forcing "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.).

W m2 


toa_net_downward_radiative_flux "toa" means top of atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


toa_net_downward_shortwave_flux "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rst 

toa_net_downward_shortwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


toa_net_upward_longwave_flux "longwave" means longwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


toa_net_upward_longwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


toa_net_upward_shortwave_flux "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Net upward radiation is the difference between radiation from below (upwelling) and radiation from above (downwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

113 E178 
toa_outgoing_longwave_flux "longwave" means longwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. The TOA outgoing longwave flux is the upwelling thermal radiative flux, often called the "outgoing longwave radiation" or "OLR". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rlut 
114 E179 
toa_outgoing_longwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "longwave" means longwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. The TOA outgoing longwave flux is the upwelling thermal radiative flux, often called the "outgoing longwave radiation" or "OLR". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rlutcs 

toa_outgoing_shortwave_flux "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. The TOA outgoing shortwave flux is the reflected and scattered solar radiative flux i.e. the "upwelling" TOA shortwave flux, sometimes called the "outgoing shortwave radiation" or "OSR". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsut 

toa_outgoing_shortwave_flux_assuming_clear_sky A phrase assuming_condition indicates that the named quantity is the value which would obtain if all aspects of the system were unaltered except for the assumption of the circumstances specified by the condition. "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "toa" means top of atmosphere. The TOA outgoing shortwave flux is the reflected and scattered solar radiative flux i.e. the "upwelling" TOA shortwave flux, sometimes called the "outgoing shortwave radiation" or "OSR". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 
rsutcs 

transpiration_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area.

kg m2 


transpiration_flux In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


tropopause_adjusted_longwave_forcing "longwave" means longwave radiation. Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment.

W m2 


tropopause_adjusted_radiative_forcing Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment.

W m2 


tropopause_adjusted_shortwave_forcing "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Adjusted forcing is the radiative flux change caused by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.) after allowance for stratospheric temperature adjustment.

W m2 


tropopause_air_pressure
No help available.

Pa 


tropopause_air_temperature Air temperature is the bulk temperature of the air, not the surface (skin) temperature.

K 


tropopause_altitude Altitude is the (geometric) height above the geoid, which is the reference geopotential surface. The geoid is similar to mean sea level.

m 


tropopause_downwelling_longwave_flux "longwave" means longwave radiation. Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


tropopause_instantaneous_longwave_forcing "longwave" means longwave radiation. Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.).

W m2 


tropopause_instantaneous_radiative_forcing Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.).

W m2 


tropopause_instantaneous_shortwave_forcing "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Instantaneous forcing is the radiative flux change caused instantaneously by an imposed change in radiative forcing agent (greenhouse gases, aerosol, solar radiation, etc.).

W m2 


tropopause_net_downward_longwave_flux "longwave" means longwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


tropopause_net_downward_shortwave_flux "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. "Downward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed downward (negative upward). Net downward radiation is the difference between radiation from above (downwelling) and radiation from below (upwelling). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


tropopause_upwelling_shortwave_flux "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upward_air_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Upward air velocity is the vertical component of the 3D air velocity vector.

m s1 

40 
upward_dry_static_energy_flux_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). Dry static energy is the sum of enthalpy and potential energy (itself the sum of gravitational and centripetal potential energy). Enthalpy can be written either as (1) CpT, where Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure, T is absolute temperature, or (2) U+pV, where U is internal energy, p is pressure and V is volume. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upward_eastward_stress_at_sea_ice_base "Eastward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed eastward (negative westward). "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). "Upward eastward" indicates the ZX component of a tensor. An upward eastward stress is an upward flux of eastward momentum, which accelerates the upper medium eastward and the lower medium westward.

Pa 


upward_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_snow ground_level means the land surface (beneath the snow and surface water, if any). "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upward_heat_flux_at_ground_level_in_soil ground_level means the land surface (beneath the snow and surface water, if any). "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upward_heat_flux_in_air "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The vertical heat flux in air is the sum of all heat fluxes i.e. radiative, latent and sensible. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upward_mass_flux_of_air "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


upward_northward_stress_at_sea_ice_base "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). "Upward northward" indicates the ZY component of a tensor. An upward northward stress is an upward flux of northward momentum, which accelerates the upper medium northward and the lower medium southward.

Pa 


upward_sea_ice_basal_heat_flux "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). The sea ice basal heat flux is the vertical heat flux (apart from radiation i.e. "diffusive") in sea water at the base of the sea ice. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upward_sea_water_velocity A velocity is a vector quantity. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward).

m s1 


upward_water_vapor_flux_in_air "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


upward_water_vapor_flux_in_air_due_to_diffusion The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Upward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed upward (negative downward). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


upwelling_longwave_flux_in_air "longwave" means longwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upwelling_longwave_radiance_in_air "longwave" means longwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


upwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 


upwelling_shortwave_radiance_in_air "shortwave" means shortwave radiation. Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 sr1 


upwelling_spectral_radiance_in_air Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. Radiance is the radiative flux in a particular direction, per unit of solid angle. The direction towards which it is going must be specified, for instance with a coordinate of zenith_angle. If the radiation does not depend on direction, a standard name of isotropic radiance should be chosen instead.

W m2 m1 sr1 


upwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_air Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


upwelling_spectral_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Upwelling radiation is radiation from below. It does not mean "net upward". "spectral" means per unit wavelength or as a function of wavelength; spectral quantities are sometimes called "monochromatic". Radiation wavelength has standard name radiation_wavelength. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 m1 


vegetation_area_fraction "X_area_fraction" means the fraction of horizontal area occupied by X. "Vegetation" means any plants e.g. trees, shrubs, grass.

1 

87 
vegetation_carbon_content "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Vegetation" means any plants e.g. trees, shrubs, grass.

kg m2 


virtual_temperature The virtual temperature of air is the temperature at which the dry air constituent of a parcel of moist air would have the same density as the moist air at the same pressure.

K 

12 
visibility_in_air The visibility is the distance at which something can be seen.

m 

20 
volume_absorption_coefficient_of_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength.

m1 


volume_absorption_coefficient_of_radiative_flux_in_sea_water_due_to_dissolved_organic_matter The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength.

m1 


volume_attenuation_coefficient_of_downwelling_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Downwelling radiation is radiation from above. It does not mean "net downward". Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. When thought of as being incident on a surface, a radiative flux is sometimes called "irradiance". In addition, it is identical with the quantity measured by a cosinecollector lightmeter and sometimes called "vector irradiance". In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength. Attenuation is the sum of absorption and scattering. Attenuation is sometimes called "extinction". Also called "diffuse" attenuation, the attenuation of downwelling radiative flux refers to the decrease with decreasing height or increasing depth of the downwelling component of radiative flux, regardless of incident direction.

m1 


volume_backwards_scattering_coefficient_of_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength. Scattering of radiation is its deflection from its incident path without loss of energy. Backwards scattering refers to the sum of scattering into all backward angles i.e. scattering_angle exceeding pi/2 radians. A scattering_angle should not be specified with this quantity.

m1 


volume_beam_attenuation_coefficient_of_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength. Attenuation is the sum of absorption and scattering. Attenuation is sometimes called "extinction". Beam attenuation refers to the decrease of radiative flux along the direction of the incident path. It is distinguished from attenuation of the downwelling component of radiative flux from any incident direction, also called "diffuse" attenuation.

m1 


volume_fraction_of_water_in_soil "Water" means water in all phases. "Volume fraction" is used in the construction volume_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y.

1 


volume_fraction_of_water_in_soil_at_field_capacity "Water" means water in all phases. "Volume fraction" is used in the construction volume_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The field capacity of soil is the maximum content of water it can retain against gravitational drainage.

1 


volume_fraction_of_water_in_soil_at_wilting_point "Water" means water in all phases. "Volume fraction" is used in the construction volume_fraction_of_X_in_Y, where X is a material constituent of Y. The wilting point of soil is the water content below which plants cannot extract sufficient water to balance their loss through transpiration.

1 


volume_mixing_ratio_of_oxygen_at_stp_in_sea_water "ratio_of_X_to_Y" means X/Y. "stp" means standard temperature (0 degC) and pressure (101325 Pa).

1 


volume_scattering_coefficient_of_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. The volume scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is the fractional change of radiative flux per unit path length due to the stated process. Coefficients with canonical units of m2 s1 i.e. multiplied by density have standard names with specific_ instead of volume_. The scattering/absorption/attenuation coefficient is assumed to be an integral over all wavelengths, unless a coordinate of radiation_wavelength is included to specify the wavelength. Scattering of radiation is its deflection from its incident path without loss of energy. The (range of) direction(s) of scattering can be specified by a coordinate of scattering_angle.

m1 


volume_scattering_function_of_radiative_flux_in_sea_water Radiative flux is the sum of shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics. Scattering of radiation is its deflection from its incident path without loss of energy. The volume scattering function is the fraction of incident radiative flux scattered into unit solid angle per unit path length. The (range of) direction(s) of scattering can be specified by a coordinate of scattering_angle.

m1 sr1 


water_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well. "Water" means water in all phases.

kg m2 


water_evaporation_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".)

kg m2 

57 
water_evaporation_amount_from_canopy
alias: water_evaporation_amount_from_canopy_where_land
"Amount" means mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".)

kg m2 


water_evaporation_flux "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
evspsbl 

water_evaporation_flux_from_canopy "Water" means water in all phases. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_evaporation_flux_from_canopy_where_land Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. "Water" means water in all phases. "Canopy" means the plant or vegetation canopy. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
evspsblveg 

water_evaporation_flux_from_soil "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_evaporation_flux_where_sea_ice Unless indicated, a quantity is assumed to apply to the whole area of each horizontal grid box. The qualifier where_type specifies instead that the quantity applies only to the part of the grid box of the named type. "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_flux_correction "Water" means water in all phases. Flux correction is also called "flux adjustment". A positive flux correction is downward i.e. added to the ocean. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_flux_into_ocean "Water" means water in all phases. The water flux into the ocean is the freshwater entering the sea water as a result of precipitation, evaporation, river inflow, sea ice effects and water flux correction (if applied). In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 
wfo 

water_flux_into_ocean_from_rivers "Water" means water in all phases. The water flux or volume transport into the ocean from rivers is the inflow to the ocean, often applied to the surface in ocean models. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_potential_evaporation_amount "Amount" means mass per unit area. "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) Potential evaporation is the rate at which evaporation would take place under unaltered ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind, etc.) if the supply of water were unlimited, as if from an open water surface.

kg m2 


water_potential_evaporation_flux "Water" means water in all phases. Evaporation is the conversion of liquid or solid into vapor. (The conversion of solid alone into vapor is called "sublimation".) Potential evaporation is the rate at which evaporation would take place under unaltered ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, wind, etc.) if the supply of water were unlimited, as if from an open water surface. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_sublimation_flux "Water" means water in all phases. Sublimation is the conversion of solid into vapor. In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

kg m2 s1 


water_vapor_content_of_atmosphere_layer "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "Layer" means any layer with upper and lower boundaries that have constant values in some vertical coordinate. There must be a vertical coordinate variable indicating the extent of the layer(s). If the layers are model layers, the vertical coordinate can be model_level_number, but it is recommended to specify a physical coordinate (in a scalar or auxiliary coordinate variable) as well.

kg m2 


water_vapor_pressure Vapor pressure is the partial pressure of a constituent of air, such as water, which exists as liquid or solid under "normal" conditions. "Water" is specified when the term is being applied to water.

Pa 

55 
water_vapor_saturation_deficit Water vapor saturation deficit is the difference between the saturation water vapor pressure and the actual water vapor pressure.

Pa 

56 
water_volume_transport_into_ocean_from_rivers "Water" means water in all phases. The water flux or volume transport into the ocean from rivers is the inflow to the ocean, often applied to the surface in ocean models.

m3 s1 


wet_bulb_temperature
No help available.

K 


wind_from_direction Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) In meteorological reports, the direction of the wind vector is usually (but not always) given as the direction from which it is blowing (wind_from_direction) (westerly, northerly, etc.). In other contexts, such as atmospheric modelling, it is often natural to give the direction in the usual manner of vectors as the heading or the direction to which it is blowing (wind_to_direction) (eastward, southward, etc.)

degree 

31 
wind_mixing_energy_flux_into_ocean Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) In accordance with common usage in geophysical disciplines, "flux" implies per unit area, called "flux density" in physics.

W m2 

126 
wind_speed Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity.

m s1 

32 
wind_speed_of_gust Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity. A gust is a sudden brief period of high wind speed. In an observed timeseries of wind speed, the gust wind speed can be indicated by a cell_methods of maximum for the timeinterval. In an atmospheric model which has a parametrised calculation of gustiness, the gust wind speed may be separately diagnosed from the wind speed.

m s1 


wind_speed_shear Speed is the magnitude of velocity. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) The wind speed is the magnitude of the wind velocity. Wind speed shear is the derivative of wind speed with respect to height.

s1 

N136 
wind_to_direction Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.) In meteorological reports, the direction of the wind vector is usually (but not always) given as the direction from which it is blowing (wind_from_direction) (westerly, northerly, etc.). In other contexts, such as atmospheric modelling, it is often natural to give the direction in the usual manner of vectors as the heading or the direction to which it is blowing (wind_to_direction) (eastward, southward, etc.)

degree 


wind_wave_period A period is an interval of time, or the timeperiod of an oscillation. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

s 

103 
x_wind
alias: grid_eastward_wind
"x" indicates a vector component along the grid xaxis, when this is not true longitude, positive with increasing x. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 


y_wind
alias: grid_northward_wind
"y" indicates a vector component along the grid yaxis, when this is not true latitude, positive with increasing y. Wind is defined as a twodimensional (horizontal) air velocity vector, with no vertical component. (Vertical motion in the atmosphere has the standard name upward_air_velocity.)

m s1 


zenith_angle Zenith angle is the angle to the local vertical; a value of zero is directly overhead.

degree 

